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Hackett notes that the Jews with two exceptions incited the persecutions which Paul endured.

The exceptions were in Philippi ( -40) and Ephesus ( -41).

It was a hurried and irregular proceeding, but they were dragging (imperfect active of συρω, old verb) Paul out now.

Supposing that he were dead (νομιζοντες αυτον τεθνηκενα).

Certainly Luke does not here employ it in that technical sense. Paul and Barnabas were following the directions of the Lord Jesus given to the twelve on their special tour of Galilee (Mt ). Imperfect active, was listening to Paul speaking (λαλουντος). This man was "no mendicant pretender," for his history was known from his birth. Acts Lifted up their voice (επηραν την φωνην αυτων). Hence it was not till preparations for offering sacrifice to them had begun that Paul understood the new role in which he and Barnabas were held. First aorist passive participle of ομοιω, to liken, with the associative instrumental case. Our word hermeneutics or science of interpretation comes from this word (Heb 7:2; Joh ). No "and" in the Greek, just the present middle participle, "gospelizing you." They are not gods, but evangelists. The one God is alive and is the Creator of the Universe just as Paul will argue in Athens (Ac ). See also 1Th 1:9 where a new allegiance is also claimed as here.

To have followed Jesus in his ministry and to have seen the Risen Christ was essential to the technical use (f. Whether Barnabas had seen the Risen Christ we do not know, but certainly Paul had (1Co 9:1f.; 15:8 ). It probably denotes not an actual attack so much as the open start, the co-operation of both Jews and Gentiles (the disaffected portion), "with their rulers" (συν τοις αρχουσιν αυτων), that is the rulers of the Jewish synagogue ( ). First aorist active infinitive of λιθοβολεω, late verb from λιθοβολος (λιθος, stone, βαλλω, to throw) to pelt with stones, the verb used of the stoning of Stephen ( ). The plan to stone them shows that the Jews were in the lead and followed by the Gentile rabble. Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia (still part of the Province of Galatia, though in another Regio), not far from the base of the Black Mountain. 6 and Derbe was the frontier city of the Roman empire in the southeast. Common in medical writers in the sense of "impotent." So Tobit ; 5:9. So best MSS., first aorist active indicative "walked," not περιεπεπατηκε, "had walked" (past perfect active). Either at the gate or in the market place ( ) Paul was preaching to such as would listen or could understand his Greek (Koine). In this primitive state the people hold to the old Graeco-Roman mythology. Because he was the chief speaker (επειδη αυτος ην ο ηγουμενος του λογου). It means "of like nature" more exactly and affected by like sensations, not "gods" at all. Here we have Paul's message to a pagan audience without the Jewish environment and he makes the same line of argument seen in Ac -32; Ro -23 . Acts In the generations gone by (εν ταις παρωιχημεναις γενεαις). Constative aorist active indicative of εαω (note syllabic augment). First aorist active (κ aorist indicative of αφιημ). Present active causal participle of αγαθουργεω, late and rare verb (also αγαθοεργεω 1Ti ), reading of the oldest MSS. Note two other causal participles here parallel with αγαθουργων, viz., διδους ("giving you") present active of διδωμι, εμπιπλων ("filling") present active of εμπιμπλαω (late form of εμπιμπλημ).

And the Lord Jesus "bore witness to the word of his grace" as he always does, "granting signs and wonders to be done by their hands" (διδοντ σημεια κα τερατα γινεσθα δια των χειρων αυτων). In this sense Galen and Hippocrates frequently use ορθος (erect, straight).

They had driven them out of Antioch and out of Iconium and now appear at Lystra at an opportune moment for their work.

Paul claimed to be an apostle on a par with the twelve (Ga 1:1,16-18 ). The city officials would hardly join in a mob like this, though Hackett and Rackham think that the city magistrates were also involved as in Antioch in Pisidia ( ). First aorist active infinitive of υβριζω, old verb to insult insolently. "Legal proceedings having failed the only resource left for the Jews was illegal violence" (Rackham). Second aorist (ingressive) active participle of συνοραω (συνειδον), old word to see together, to become conscious of as already in . Professor Sterrett has apparently identified Lystra by an inscription about six hours (18 miles) south-southwest from Iconium near the village Khatyn Serai and Derbe probably near the village Losta or Zosta though its location is really not known. These are the only cities mentioned, but they were of importance and show that Paul kept to his plan of going to centres of influence. The story of Baucis and Philemon tells how Jupiter (Zeus) and Mercury (Hermes) visited in human form the neighbouring region of Phrygia (Ovid, Meta. Paul was clearly "the leader of the talk." So it seemed a clear case to the natives. We also are men of like passions with you (κα ημεις ομοιοπαθεις εσμεν υμιν ανθρωπο). Their conduct was more serious than the obeisance of Cornelius to Peter (f. At Antioch in Pisidia we saw Paul's line of approach to Jews and proselytes (Ac -41 ). Perfect middle participle from παροιχομα, to go by, old verb, here alone in the N. Paul here touches God in history as he did just before in creation. twice only, once with finite verb as here, once with the participle (Heb 4:3 ). Old adjective (α privative and μαρτυς, witness), only here in the N. This witness to God (his doing good, giving rains and fruitful seasons, filling your hearts with food and gladness) they could receive without the help of the Old Testament revelation (Ro ). Cheerfulness should be our normal attitude when we consider God's goodness.

The word originally means simply one sent (Joh ) like messengers of the churches with the collection (2Co ). The new imperial road from Antioch and Iconium reached these cities. If preachers always knew what people really think of them! Probably garlands to put on the oxen before they were slain. He was planning to do it, and his purpose now became plain to Paul and Barnabas. Such elaborate preparation "with the multitudes" (συν τοις οχλοις) spread rumours and some who spoke Greek told Paul and Barnabas. Old adjective from ομοιος (like) and πασχω, to experience. That ye should turn from these vain things (απο τουτων των ματαιων επιστρεφειν). God's hand is on the history of all the nations (Gentile and Jew), only with the Gentiles he withdrew the restraints of his grace in large measure (Ac ; Ro ,26,28 ), judgment enough for their sins. Zeus was regarded as the god of rain (Jupiter Pluvius) and Paul claims the rain and the fruitful (καρποφορουσ, καρπος, and φερω, fruit bearing, old word, here alone in N. Lycaonia was often dry and it would be an appropriate item. Paul does not here mention Christ because he had the single definite purpose to dissuade them from worshipping Barnabas and himself. Adverb in same sense as old μογις, from μολος, toil. Effective first aorist active indicative of καταπαυω, old verb in causative sense to make abstain from.

The magistrates however must have seen at once that there was no legal case against them; and by a sentence of acquittal or in some other way the Lord gave peace" (Rackham).

As we have it, the story of Paul and Thecla undoubtedly has apocryphal features, though Thecla may very well be an historical character here at Iconium where the story is located.

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