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Also for the second campaign, the hoards are not very helpful. Hoards with a terminus post quem from AD 262 to 265. Then a short description of the hoard is given: usually date of finding, number and type of coins and the terminus post quem. SCHULl'E, Die Goldpriigung der gallischen Kaiser oon Poslumus bis Teiricus (Typos Monographien zur Antike Numismatik, 4), Aarau Frankfurt-arn-Main - Salzburg, 1983. 1989, hoard of 1199 S, 1 as and 4 A from Vespasian or Titus to Gallienus and Postumus. 1760, hoard of 20000 to 30000 AR coins (Severus Alexander ~ Postumus). 432 Ernècourt 1870-1880, AR coins from Gordian III to Pos(Lorraine. 433 Naix-aux-Forges Il Hoard consisting of severa] jewels, abjects, 5 (Lorraine, Meuse) aurei (Hadrian to the Severi)and AR coins (Severi ta Gallienus). hoard consistingof 53 [ewelsand precious Eauze abjects (in AV, AR and AE), 6 aurei, 4706 D, (Midi-Pyrénées. Hoard of 3000 « deniers» (Septimius Severus Lectoure (Midi-Pyrimées. Vic-Fezensac From Trajan ta « Postumus père », (Midi-Pyrénées, Gers) Artigue (Midi-Pyrénées, Before 1951, hoard of 21 A (Gordian III to Va Haute-Garonne) lerian and Gallienus). 1885, hoard of ± 3000 ~ deniers n from Septi Saint-Cisy (Midi-Pyrémius Severus ta Gallienus and Postumus. Haute-Garonne) Toulouse (Midi-Pyrè1981, hoard found in unknown circumstances, only 7 D and 6 A are known: Septimius Senees. of which 198 are known Aubigny-au-Bac (Gordian III ta Postumus). 1979, hoard of ± 200 A of which 165 are Bellignies known: Philippus ta Gallienus and Postumus. Terminus: Gallienus (sole reign, émission du bestiaire) = AD 267-268. Rev Nord (1994) p.147, CAG, Nord, 69 TAF, Il, Nord, 19 TAF, Il, Nord, 22 TAF. 1988, find of 22 A (Gordian III ta Valerian and Postumus) and of 1 S of Postumus.

Apport de la numismatique; in ANRW, II, Principal, 2, 1975, p. HOLLARD, La lhésaurisoiion du monnayage de bronze de Poslume: structure et chronologie des dépôts, in TM, 13, 1992, p. (5) The Italian hoards are not included in this study, for the depots of northern Italy, see L. and their burial and non-recovery can as good be a consequence of banditism or accident. And indeed, we have evidence of the plague under the reign of Gallienus. Together with the name of the hoard (mostly the name or place under which it was published or is known) also an administrative indication is given 9 ) . 1825, find of 0 and A from ~ Antonin 0 (Antoninus Pius or Caracalla) ta Trajanus Decius and 1 A of Valerian. 1676, hourd of ± 10000 coins (Caracalla - Postumus). board of 629 A ending with Gallienus (victoria qermonica. 1856, in unknown circumstances, hoard of ± 300 coins of which 196 have been identilied: 2 S, ID and 193 A from Faustina l ta Postumus. 1783, hoard of over 300 AR coinsfrom Severus Alexander ta Saloninus, Terminus: Saloninus Augustus: AD 260. Absence ai coins of Valerian Il and Postumus: AD 253-256. Terminus: Gallienus (sole reign), RIC 462 and 478 = AD 261-262. Gers, 461 Gallia (1951) p.135 BI 622 BSFN (1989) p. 1984, hoard of 108 A from Gordian III ta Gallienus and Postumus. Of Postumus 1 S and 19 double Sare known: AD 267-268.

Many authors wrote that, simultaneously with the Germanie invasions, Rome and Greece were vigorously struek by this dreaded disease (Hi). ROMAN COIN HOARDS AND GERMANIe INVASIONS AD 253-269 53 6) Accidents, coincidence and coin hoards Until the 19th century it was, in the absence of banks, the custom to hide the savings somewhere at home: under the bed, in a hidden niche in the wall, in the garden, below the floor, ... But also for the non-recuperation of these hoards it isn't always necessary to look for a cornplicated cause. The conclusion is quite simple: usurpations, civil war, bandltism, plague, accident or devaluation, non of these alternative theories have proven to be campatîble with the image shawn by the hoards themselves. Apart from the invasions during the periods 260-261 and 268, which have already received a lot of attention from modern scholars, we see that also between the years 262 and 267 there was a continuous distress in the Gallic Empire ("). ) seemed to have caused a lot of havoc (with sometimes a remarkable association of hoards with e e e (23) Zos., I, 29 and ZONAR., Annales, XII, 22. 56 GIJS DE GREEF rivers what presumes that sorne attacks were carried out by boat). 231 La Chapelle-sous-Bran- 1951, small hoard of fi A from Gordian III to CAG, Saône-etcion (Bourgogne, Gailienus and Valerianus II. 232 La Comelle 1 1770, hoard consisting of coins from Gordian ta LORIOT, n" 19 (Bourgogne, Postumus. 471, 472 (Centre, Eure-et-Loir) ably A), mostly of Gallienus and Postumus. Guivry-en-Vexin 1987-1988, 606 A from Balbinus to Postumus. 246 ROMAN COIN BOARDS AND GERMANIC INVASIONS AD n PLACE 456 Berlaimont (Nord-Pd C, Nord) 457 Bermerain (Nord·Pd C, Nord) 458 Bollezeele (Nord-Pd C.

What matters is that the owners of these hoards were never able to recover their savings and this can only be explained by assuming more violent causes like Germanie invasions, civil war or banditism. L'importance des invasions du Bas-Empire: peul-on Orosius wrote: « Posiumius in Gallia inoasit tyrranidem, mullo quidem rei publicae commodo: nam per decem annos ingenli oirtuie ac moderatione usus, el dominantes hosles expulit et perdiies provincias in pristinatn faciem reformavit. Looking at figures 6 to 9 we can hardly share this vision. VICT., 33, 3; EUTR., IX, 8 and OROS.• VII, 22, 7-8. 51 hoards a year), The hoards of the period 260-269 have also a tendency to be more dispersed over time in cornparison with the hoards of the period 253-260 (of the dated hoards of the joint reign of Valerian and Gallienus 65.5 % could he attributed to the years 258-260). Kirchen FREY {unde: eine Übersicht (Inventar der Fundmünzen der Schweiz, 1), Lausanne, 1993. FRIEDLAENDER, Miscellen, in Berliner Blâller 1979, unknown number of coins, only 84 A TM (1993) were examined (Gordian ]JI to Valerian and p. Terminus: Elmer 83 '" AD 259· 230 Étrîgny 1 (Bourgogne, Saône-et-L) 71 BIBL. 1844, hoard of 2 silver bracelets, 3 golden rings LORIOT, n" 24 and almost 200 AR coins from Gordian III to Valerian and Postumus.• Probable terminus: Saloninus: AD 258-260. find of a silver mirror and 73 coins (Tra- FERD, n" 30 (Centre. Merouville II 1850or 1859, unknown number of coins (proh- Bl 469. Eure-et1913, hoard consisting of coins of Postumus. 76 Nogent-sur-Eure 1843-1844, hoard of 610 A (Maximinus - Postu- BI 476 FERD. 100 (Centre, Eure-et-Loir) pasian or Titus ta Postumus). Thimert-Gàtelles 1993, hoard of 269 AE coins: 17 Dp or as and TM (1995) (Centre, Eure-et-Loir) p.253-256. 80 0 GIJS DE GREEF DESCRIPTION n PLACE 402 Ermont (Ile-de-France, 1884, find of 2000 à 2500 AR coins of which Val-d'Oise) 308 are published: 160 D, 140 A, 8 D or A (Septirnius Severus- Postumus).

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If we study the publications of the Corpus des trésors monétaires antiques de la France (TAF), we find that hoards from the period 253-269 represent sorne 10 % of a Il the ancient hoards found in regîons like Aquitaine, Pays de la Loire or Poitou-Charentes but 25 % in Picardie and ca.

20, 3 and OROS., H isioriae adversus paganos, VII, 25, 2. Hoards with a terminus post quem from AD 266 ta 267. D'ou les pics de thésaurisations en 238, 253 256, 260-261, 266, 268, 274, ... At first sight this seems to be a very acceptable theory. First, a devaluation is supposed to be a general phenomenon, but when we examine figures 1 to 9 we see this isn't the case. Catalogue In this catalogue, consisting of 767 hoards, all coin hoards ending with coins of Valerian, Gallienus (and theîr family) or Postumus are included. 244 Grimault 1952, hoard of 437 coins (mostly A) from Iulia Gallia (195:{) Damna (reign of Caracalla) to Postumus (a.o. Location uncertain, possibly in Laroche-Saint-Cydroine. 1952, 1 D and 436 A from lulia Domna (reign JACOB, n" 38 of Caracalla) to Postumus. 1969, hoard of 6,5 kg, 1173 D A from Marcus JACOB, n" 47 Aureliusta Gallienus and Postumus are known, 1980, find of 200 to 300 Roman coins. n" 2 BI suppl 1183bis Gallia (1975) p.345-346 BI 465 73 ROMAN COIN HOARDS AND GERMANIC INVASIONS AD 253-269 a n PLACE DESCRIPTION BIBL. Clément-sur-Sauldre II 1898, ± 1200 coins from Elagabalus to Gallie(Centre, Cher) nus and Postumus. an unknown number of coins, only 9 are (Centre, Cher) known (Etruscilla ta Postumus). Morthomiers 1969, ± 400 coins of which 1 D and 149 A are (Centre, Cher) known: Septimius Severusto Valerian 1and II, Gallienus. Gallienus and (Languedoc-Roussillon, their family (including Valerian II divus). Saint-Laurent-d'Aigouze 1860, hoard of ± 200 coins of which 150 AR (Languedoc-Roussillon, coins are known from Caracalla to Valerian Gard) and Gallienus. 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 BIBL. 1923, hoard of which only 1 coin is known: Postumus (Elmer 314) = AD 262. Pas-de-Cu lais) 495 Biache-Saint-Vaast (NOl'd-Pd C, Pas-de-Calais) 1810, hoard of 1 Sand 80 AR coins from Vespasian to Postumus. 62 TAF, II, 63 TAF, II, 65 T AF, II, 66 TAF, Il, 72 Nord.

Even the pla gue under Mareus Aurelius (AD 165-166), deseribed as one of the worst in antiquity, has never resulted in an abnormal number of hoards ("). Delmaire wrote: « Grâce à la datation précise des émissions, on peut constater exisience d'une brutale augmentation du nombre des trésors chaque fois que Tétat modifie la monnaie pour la dévaluer ou la réévaluer. Among thern there seems ta he one cornmon tendency: (21) E.g. However, the geographical and chronological concentrations of these hoards are very significant when studying the history of the troubled third century AD and the Germanie invasions. Échanges commerciaux e L circuits monétaires au milieu du siêcle après J .-C. Saône-ct-L) 238 Ouroux-sur-Sâone Il Hoard of 352 AR coins from Faustina II to Va- Pv, n" 42 (Bourgogne, lerian, Gallienus and Saloninus. 1898, hoard of 27 AR and 93 AE coins (Trajan LORIOT, n' 42 239 Pierreclos (Bourgogne, HÛLL, p. Saône-et-L) 210 Saint-Boil 1980, hoard consisting of 7 D 515 A (Septi- CAG, Saône-ct(Bourgogne, mius Severus ta Postumus) and several jewels. lnîorm., 241 Verjux 1 1988-1990, 140 S (Nerva to Severus Alexander), Gallia (Bourgogne, 6 D and 644 A (Antoninus Pius to Valerian and Bourgogne (1994Saône-et-L.) Gallienus), 1995), p. 242 Verjux Il (Bourgogne, Before 1990, hoard consisting of 1 D of Cara- CAG, Saône-et Saône-et-L] calla and 572 A from Gordian III ta Valerian I Loire, 571 and Il, Gallienus and Saloninus. 1950-1955, hoard of ± 200 A, only 50 studied JACOB, n" 17 243 Chemilly-sur-Vonne (Bourgogne, Yonne) (Gordian III to Postumus). Yonne) 249 Saint-Florentin (Bourgogne, Yonne) Senan II (Bourgogne, Yonne) VîIleneuve-sur-Yonne (Bourgogne, Yonne) 1903, hoard of over 120 AR coins but only 88 BI suppl 1042 are known (Elagabalus ta Valerian II divus). 1847, hoard of 1200 to 1500 coins (probably A) JACOB, n" 31 from Gordian III to Postumus. hoard of 651 coins of which 458 S, 16 D and 96 A are known (Galba - Postumus). Terminus gîven by Hollard for AE coins: AD 264-265. Bourges VIII 1956, a large number of S but only 12 exarni(Centre, Cher) ned (Titus to Postumus). Somewhere in the department, find of 200 coins Cher (Centre, Cher) of which 1 of Postumus. Bize-Minervois (Langue- ln a tornb: small hoard, terminus given: Galliedcc-Rousslllon, Aude) nus, AD 260. hoard of ± 100 coins of which 55 D and doc-Roussillon, Gard) A are known, from Caracalla (reign of Septimius Severus) to Valerian and Gallienus. Nages-et-Solorgues 1981, hoard of 19 A of Valerian. 1872, large number of imitations of Sand clouhie S of Postumus. Nord, 40 TA F, II, Nord, 42 TA F, II, Nord, 45 TAF, II, Nord, 46 Rev Nord (1985) p.212, CAG. 475 Maulde (Nord-Pd C, Nord) Mortagne-du-Nord (Nord-Pdû, Nord) Neville-en-Avesnois (Nord-Pd C, Nord) Nord (Nord-Pd C, Nord) 1835, hoard consisting of coins from the 3th century (Valerian. Pas-de-Calais) 1\90 Ardres IV (Nord-Pd C, Pas-de-Calais) 491 Arras II (Nord-Pd C, Pas-de-Calais) 492 Arras III (Nord-Pd C, Pas-de-Calais) 493 Avion (Nord-Pdû, Pas-de-Calais) 494 Baralle (Nord-Pd C.

Parihi, Mesopolamia occupata, Syriam sibi coeperunl nitulicare. Again this hypothesis cannot be used to explain the vast majority of finds and the large concentrations in e.g. 1752, hoard of ± 60000 coins ~ from lulia Pia and Caracalla to Gallienus ».

Eutropius, Breuiarutn, IX, 8 With these dramatic words Eutropius and other Roman authors descrîbed the events, which took place under the reign of the emperors Valerian (253-260), Gallienus (253-268) and Postumus (260-269). Remarkable is that bath « believers » as « non-believers ) have based their arguments on very fragmentated and incomplete evidence sirice no catalogues or maps including ail hoards from the period 253-269 existed. Koethe is now completely out of date and offers no precise dating. the Rhône Saône region (in 260) and in Northern Gaul, 50 GIJS DE GREEF Legend: ...

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If we study the publications of the Corpus des trésors monétaires antiques de la France (TAF), we find that hoards from the period 253-269 represent sorne 10 % of a Il the ancient hoards found in regîons like Aquitaine, Pays de la Loire or Poitou-Charentes but 25 % in Picardie and ca. 20, 3 and OROS., H isioriae adversus paganos, VII, 25, 2. Hoards with a terminus post quem from AD 266 ta 267. D'ou les pics de thésaurisations en 238, 253 256, 260-261, 266, 268, 274, ... At first sight this seems to be a very acceptable theory. First, a devaluation is supposed to be a general phenomenon, but when we examine figures 1 to 9 we see this isn't the case. Catalogue In this catalogue, consisting of 767 hoards, all coin hoards ending with coins of Valerian, Gallienus (and theîr family) or Postumus are included. 244 Grimault 1952, hoard of 437 coins (mostly A) from Iulia Gallia (195:{) Damna (reign of Caracalla) to Postumus (a.o. Location uncertain, possibly in Laroche-Saint-Cydroine. 1952, 1 D and 436 A from lulia Domna (reign JACOB, n" 38 of Caracalla) to Postumus. 1969, hoard of 6,5 kg, 1173 D A from Marcus JACOB, n" 47 Aureliusta Gallienus and Postumus are known, 1980, find of 200 to 300 Roman coins. n" 2 BI suppl 1183bis Gallia (1975) p.345-346 BI 465 73 ROMAN COIN HOARDS AND GERMANIC INVASIONS AD 253-269 a n PLACE DESCRIPTION BIBL. Clément-sur-Sauldre II 1898, ± 1200 coins from Elagabalus to Gallie(Centre, Cher) nus and Postumus. an unknown number of coins, only 9 are (Centre, Cher) known (Etruscilla ta Postumus). Morthomiers 1969, ± 400 coins of which 1 D and 149 A are (Centre, Cher) known: Septimius Severusto Valerian 1and II, Gallienus. Gallienus and (Languedoc-Roussillon, their family (including Valerian II divus). Saint-Laurent-d'Aigouze 1860, hoard of ± 200 coins of which 150 AR (Languedoc-Roussillon, coins are known from Caracalla to Valerian Gard) and Gallienus. 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 BIBL. 1923, hoard of which only 1 coin is known: Postumus (Elmer 314) = AD 262. Pas-de-Cu lais) 495 Biache-Saint-Vaast (NOl'd-Pd C, Pas-de-Calais) 1810, hoard of 1 Sand 80 AR coins from Vespasian to Postumus. 62 TAF, II, 63 TAF, II, 65 T AF, II, 66 TAF, Il, 72 Nord. Even the pla gue under Mareus Aurelius (AD 165-166), deseribed as one of the worst in antiquity, has never resulted in an abnormal number of hoards ("). Delmaire wrote: « Grâce à la datation précise des émissions, on peut constater exisience d'une brutale augmentation du nombre des trésors chaque fois que Tétat modifie la monnaie pour la dévaluer ou la réévaluer. Among thern there seems ta he one cornmon tendency: (21) E.g. However, the geographical and chronological concentrations of these hoards are very significant when studying the history of the troubled third century AD and the Germanie invasions. Échanges commerciaux e L circuits monétaires au milieu du ]] siêcle après J .-C. Saône-ct-L) 238 Ouroux-sur-Sâone Il Hoard of 352 AR coins from Faustina II to Va- Pv, n" 42 (Bourgogne, lerian, Gallienus and Saloninus. 1898, hoard of 27 AR and 93 AE coins (Trajan LORIOT, n' 42 239 Pierreclos (Bourgogne, HÛLL, p. Saône-et-L) 210 Saint-Boil 1980, hoard consisting of 7 D 515 A (Septi- CAG, Saône-ct(Bourgogne, mius Severus ta Postumus) and several jewels. lnîorm., 241 Verjux 1 1988-1990, 140 S (Nerva to Severus Alexander), Gallia (Bourgogne, 6 D and 644 A (Antoninus Pius to Valerian and Bourgogne (1994Saône-et-L.) Gallienus), 1995), p. 242 Verjux Il (Bourgogne, Before 1990, hoard consisting of 1 D of Cara- CAG, Saône-et Saône-et-L] calla and 572 A from Gordian III ta Valerian I Loire, 571 and Il, Gallienus and Saloninus. 1950-1955, hoard of ± 200 A, only 50 studied JACOB, n" 17 243 Chemilly-sur-Vonne (Bourgogne, Yonne) (Gordian III to Postumus). Yonne) 249 Saint-Florentin (Bourgogne, Yonne) Senan II (Bourgogne, Yonne) VîIleneuve-sur-Yonne (Bourgogne, Yonne) 1903, hoard of over 120 AR coins but only 88 BI suppl 1042 are known (Elagabalus ta Valerian II divus). 1847, hoard of 1200 to 1500 coins (probably A) JACOB, n" 31 from Gordian III to Postumus. hoard of 651 coins of which 458 S, 16 D and 96 A are known (Galba - Postumus). Terminus gîven by Hollard for AE coins: AD 264-265. Bourges VIII 1956, a large number of S but only 12 exarni(Centre, Cher) ned (Titus to Postumus). Somewhere in the department, find of 200 coins Cher (Centre, Cher) of which 1 of Postumus. Bize-Minervois (Langue- ln a tornb: small hoard, terminus given: Galliedcc-Rousslllon, Aude) nus, AD 260. hoard of ± 100 coins of which 55 D and doc-Roussillon, Gard) A are known, from Caracalla (reign of Septimius Severus) to Valerian and Gallienus. Nages-et-Solorgues 1981, hoard of 19 A of Valerian. 1872, large number of imitations of Sand clouhie S of Postumus. Nord, 40 TA F, II, Nord, 42 TA F, II, Nord, 45 TAF, II, Nord, 46 Rev Nord (1985) p.212, CAG. 475 Maulde (Nord-Pd C, Nord) Mortagne-du-Nord (Nord-Pdû, Nord) Neville-en-Avesnois (Nord-Pd C, Nord) Nord (Nord-Pd C, Nord) 1835, hoard consisting of coins from the 3th century (Valerian. Pas-de-Calais) 1\90 Ardres IV (Nord-Pd C, Pas-de-Calais) 491 Arras II (Nord-Pd C, Pas-de-Calais) 492 Arras III (Nord-Pd C, Pas-de-Calais) 493 Avion (Nord-Pdû, Pas-de-Calais) 494 Baralle (Nord-Pd C. Parihi, Mesopolamia occupata, Syriam sibi coeperunl nitulicare. Again this hypothesis cannot be used to explain the vast majority of finds and the large concentrations in e.g. 1752, hoard of ± 60000 coins ~ from lulia Pia and Caracalla to Gallienus ». Eutropius, Breuiarutn, IX, 8 With these dramatic words Eutropius and other Roman authors descrîbed the events, which took place under the reign of the emperors Valerian (253-260), Gallienus (253-268) and Postumus (260-269). Remarkable is that bath « believers » as « non-believers ) have based their arguments on very fragmentated and incomplete evidence sirice no catalogues or maps including ail hoards from the period 253-269 existed. Koethe is now completely out of date and offers no precise dating. the Rhône Saône region (in 260) and in Northern Gaul, 50 GIJS DE GREEF Legend: ...

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