The first settlements dating to b c e 7000
Hence he cannot ask the question of where the new people came from.
To continue with the remarks of Majer: The Eastern Desert and Red Sea coast were occupied in the Epipaleolithic Period by people who had some connection to the Nile Valley.
Shells of Red Sea gastropods were occasionally were found in the northern Nile reaches of Fayum, (Caton-Thompson and Gardner 19-88), and were also present in small numbers at Merimde, El Omari and Wadi el-Hof (Hayes 191-21).
This shows that trade with the Red Sea had reached those regions early in Valley history.
Thus they miss how groups carry their culture with them and leave traces of it as they pass through, perhaps with elements remaining behind to settle along the way. Smith, writing in the same volume dedicated to Michael Hoffman: For may years now Petrie's thesis that the Dynastic civilization of Egypt was the work of a 'Dynastic Race' of eastern invaders from the general direction of Susiana and Sumeria (Petrie 1939) has been rightly abandoned in favor of the hypothesis that it was mainly an indigenous North-East African development (Hoffman 1980).
While scientific objectivity is an admirable and necessary practice to remain neutral in assessing evidence it misses the dynamics of human origins. Apparently Smith does not know of the great hiatus in the Nile Valley from 10,000 BC to 6,000 BC.
But agriculture was common wherever the Andite people migrated, carried with them from their origins. Debono found a Predynastic village at Laqeita oasis which he dated by the pottery to the Badarian and Naqada I periods.
They do not see human migrations, but people who occupy a particular geographical area with little regard for how they got there.
Then they attempt to explain how those isolated people exchanged with one another.
A prominent find in the graves were huge masses of glazed steatite beads.
Some Egyptologists believe those derived from Mesopotamian and Syrian contexts (Finkenstaedt, 1983), although they may also have originated from sources in the Eastern Desert (Lucas 199, 480).